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Multatuli is the pseudonym of Eduard Douwes Dekker, Holland's greatest nineteenth-century writer. Dekker was born in Amsterdam in 1820 and spent a considerable number of years in the Dutch East Indies. In 1852 he returned to Holland and made his first attempts to become a professional writer. These efforts failed, and after a return to the East Indies Dekker traveller around Europe for several years. In 1860 he published Max Havelaar, his first novel, which has since become a Dutch classic. At this time Dekker took up permanently his pseudonym, which is Latin for "I have suffered a lot." His works are generally unavailable in English, although a selection of aphorisms and parables has been published under the title The Oyster and the Eagle, and Max Havelaar has appeared in an English edition. Multatuli died in 1887.